Hysterectomy is the surgery to remove woman's uterus. It may also involve removal of the cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes and other surrounding structures. During the hysterectomy surgery the uterus is removed completely. Fallopian tubes and ovaries also will be removed sometimes. After a hysterectomy menstrual periods will be stopped. A woman may have a hysterectomy for different reasons, like Uterine fibroids that cause pain, bleeding, Uterine prolapse, Cancer of the uterus, cervix, or ovaries, Adenomyosis or a thickening of the uterus. Different types of hysterectomies include Total hysterectomy, Partial hysterectomy and Radical hysterectomy. Total hysterectomy is the most common type in which uterus is removed completely along with the cervix. The ovaries and the fallopian tubes are removed sometimes. In partial hysterectomy the upper part of the uterus is removed without touching the cervix. The ovaries may or may not be removed. In radical hysterectomy uterus, cervix, the tissue on both sides of the cervix, and the upper part of the vagina are removed. Certain types of cancers are treated using radical hysterectomy. The fallopian tubes and the ovaries may or may not be removed.
A hysterectomy can be done in several different ways. In Abdominal hysterectomy, lower abdomen is cut open. Vaginal hysterectomy is done through a small cut in the vagina. In Laparoscopic hysterectomy, the uterus is removed using laparoscope with small cuts made in abdomen or vagina. In Robotic surgery, Doctor uses robotic arm to do the surgery through small cuts in your lower abdomen. Hysterectomy may be medically necessary, when prolonged heavy bleeding or certain types of cancer are found. But sometimes other treatments can be tried first. Some medicines like pills, Injections, or vaginal ring, or a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) can be tried for irregular or heavy vaginal bleeding. Exercises can be tried (squeezing the pelvic floor muscles) which help restore tone to the muscles holding the uterus in place